Brian Lee, bankruptcy and foreclosure lawyer serving clients in Virginia and Washington, D.C.

Millions of Americans count on their tax refunds each year to pay down debts, get caught up on bills, or simply to make ends meet. With an estimated 1.5 million personal bankruptcies to be filed in 2011, bankruptcy lawyers around the country are being asked the same question: “What will happen to my tax refund if I declare bankruptcy?”

Income tax refunds are basically interest-free loans to the government, and are therefore considered assets of debtors who declare bankruptcy. The trustee assigned to your case may be able to seize your income tax refund, depending upon two main factors: first, what type of bankruptcy you file, and second, whether your refund is fully exempted.

The two main types of personal bankruptcy cases are Chapter 7 and Chapter 13. In a Chapter 7 case, debtors are essentially allowed to walk away from their debts.

In a Chapter 13 case, debtors must repay their unsecured debts over 3 to 5 years.

Most Chapter 7 cases are considered “no asset” cases, and for those assets that the debtor does possess, there are federal and state exemption laws, which prevent the bankruptcy trustee from seizing and selling the debtor’s property.

Just like the debtor’s household goods, clothing and automobile, in most Chapter 7 cases the debtor’s tax refund can be fully exempted, which means the bankruptcy trustee cannot even consider seizing the refund. However it is very important to use the full and correct exemptions to protect the refund.

Chapter 13 cases can be a bit more complicated. If you have a confirmed Chapter 13 Plan that requires repayment of only a percentage of your debt, your trustee will likely seize your refund every year over the course of your bankruptcy, using the proceeds to increase the payout to unsecured creditors. Income tax refunds in Chapter 13 are considered “property of the estate,” so your trustee will want to apply this money toward payment of your Plan.

In 100% repayment cases, however, the trustee has no interest in seizing your tax refund. If your income is demonstrably sufficient to satisfy your confirmed Plan, the trustee will allow you to keep your tax refund. You may want to adjust your withholdings before filing a Chapter 13 appropriate.

The bankruptcy trustee will in most cases require the debtor to file a tax return to determine whether the debtor’s refund can be seized and used to repay creditors. Unlike a home or car with equity, which must first be auctioned to produce distributable funds, tax refunds are a quick cash windfall to the creditors.

Tax refunds are the assets most frequently captured by bankruptcy trustees. An experienced bankruptcy attorney can assist you in finding the maximum exemption strategy to protect your tax refund.

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Brian Lee is a bankruptcy and foreclosure lawyer serving clients in Virginia and Washington, D.C. For more information, visit or call (202) 448-5136.

Contact Details:

(202) 448-5136
fax (202) 640-2097
1050 Connecticut Avenue NW
Tenth Floor
Washington, DC 20036

Tadsam – Experienced And Professional Lean Sigma Training Specialists

Tadsam are number one choice to deliver a high quality and rewarding program for your team and staff members.

Gloucestershire, UK, March 22, 2011 — When it comes to Lean Sigma Training for your business, organisation or public sector body, Tadsam ( ) are your number one choice to deliver a high quality and rewarding program for your team and staff members.

Who They Are:
Tadsam Ltd are a team of time served practitioners who train and manage step change improvement projects utilising world class statistical and quality improvement methodology, a training revolution known as Lean Sigma or Six Sigma.

What They Do:
The highly qualified and professional team of trainers coach and train a professionals “shop floor to boardroom” to “Blackbelt” and “Greenbelt” standard using the Air Academy Associates “Keep it Simple Statistically” approach, facilitating significant return on investment on the training investment to the businesses involved.

The current courses on offer include:
Lean Sigma Yellow Belt, Green Belt (modules 1 – 13) and Black Belt (modules 1-30) Courses.

About The Lean / Six Sigma Approach:
In helping organisations throughout the world apply the Lean Sigma methodology, Air Academy Associates has seen the need to show the Lean and Six Sigma approaches as a dynamic, synergistic force, rather than as what often is perceived as two competing initiatives.

These two leading business process improvement strategies bring a host of valuable tools to the workplace, which, if used properly with leadership support and commitment, can make a huge difference in the way companies work.

As consultants Tadsam Ltd ( ) have worked independently with applications as diverse as a cultural change programme within Aerospace, performance improvements in the plastics industry, professional project engineers, FMCG food, drinks and electronics.

Your Next Steps:
You can contact the team by telephone on 07921 182365 or by dropping them an email or by filling out the contact form on their newly launched website.

Press & Media Contact:
Tadsam Ltd – Lean Sigma Training
New Cottage, Parkend Road
Coleford, Gloucestershire GL16 7HX UK
07921 182365

“Get Wicked” with Octane Deodorants’ from Elder Health Care

* Blend of superior French fragrance makes Octane deos stand apart.

Mumbai, India, March 22, 2011 — To make the hot summers sizzle further, Elder Health Care Ltd ( ) has launched the Octane range of deodorants made from specially Imported Fine French Fragrances that are certified by the Paris-based IFRA [International Fragrance Association (IFRA)]. Octane is an energy boosting hydrocarbon. The term “Octane” is used in normal life for anything that imparts high vigor and vitality. Octane is ideal for Urban Centric Young Males in the age segment of 15 – 35 years, who are looking for better and long lasting fragrance experience for creating an impression on the opposite sex. The superior French fragrances are ideally suited for hot and humid Indian climatic conditions and last for almost upto 24 hours.

The deodorants are available in 5 variants and each variant is denoted by numerals namely – 91, 93, 95, 97, 99. The five variants are “Octane 91 Cool Aromatic Citrus”, “Octane 93 Adventurous Musky Woody”, “Octane 95 Playful Fruity Woody”, “Octane 97 Enchanting Romantic Woody” and “Octane 99 Magnetic Oriental Musky”

In the highly competitive market of Male deodorants where every deodorant is like another; a longer lasting, skin friendly, IFRA certified superior fragrance would make the user stand apart. The fragrances from France ensure consistency of a world class quality assurance.

For the Launch of Octane Deodorants Elder Healthcare has tied up with leading Modern Trade outlets such as BIG BAZAAR for the Shubh Muhurat launch activity wherein there would be exclusive launch across 200 Big Bazaar Stores. Octane deodorants would also be distributed through the 1,00,000 plus Traditional Trade outlets like the Cosmetic, Chemist and General Store formats across India.

Speaking at the launch, Dr. Anuj Saxena, Managing Director, Elder Health Care Ltd, ( ) said “The deodorant category is one of the biggest personal grooming category where most of the products are male centric. Octane Deodorants will create a revolution in the male grooming category with a range of superior French fragrances”. Elder Healthcare will aggressively market the range through mass media Television, Online and Print advertising.

Priced at Rs 175/- for a 150 ml can, Octane Deodorants have been launched on a pan-India basis at modern retail and other outlets and are to be supported by high-impact advertising on television, print, out-door, on-line and radio. For further information log onto

Press & Media Contact:
Mitesh M Kapadia
Sentinel Public Relations Pvt Ltd / Sentinel Advertising Services
B-603, Samajdeep,
Near Bhanu Park/Seasons Restaurant
Adukia Road, Off S V Road
Kandivli (W), Mumbai 400 067. INDIA
Tel: (91 22) 28625131/32. Cel: +91 98205 03876
Fax: (91 22) 28625133

Ludus Tours Offers Travel Packages for Under $1,000 to Guadalajara for the 2011 Pan American Games

Ludus Tours unveiled its 2011 Guadalajara Pan Ams Travel Packages, which include hotel stay, transportation, onsite guide and translator assistance, as well as exclusive Ludus Tours perks and events.

San Diego, CA, March 22, 2011 — Today Ludus Tours, ( ) a travel and hospitality company that focuses on major global sporting and cultural events, unveiled its 2011 Guadalajara Pan Ams Travel Packages, which include hotel stay, transportation, onsite guide and translator assistance, as well as exclusive Ludus Tours perks and events.

The Pan American Games host top athletes from over 40 countries in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. This year’s event will take place from October 14-30, 2011, and will have more sports than the 2012 London Olympics.

Ludus Tours is offering three waves of standard packages, which are priced from $995 per person and include a five or six night stay in a three to five-star hotel, private airport transportation both ways, welcome happy hour, Guadalajara sightseeing excursion, gift bags and more. To view full package details, visit

“The Pan American Games are the biggest sporting event in the Western Hemisphere and they bring many of the world’s most talented athletes-who also happen to be neighbors-out to compete,” said Adam Dailey, Managing Director of Ludus Tours. “We’re excited to help as many American fans as possible make the trip south of the boarder to cheer on our national team.”

Ludus Tours is the Official Hospitality and Accommodations Provider for over 10 USA National Governing Bodies (NGB) and members of a Ludus Tours sponsored NGB receive a discount on any Ludus Tours trip, including the 2011 Pan American Games, the London Games and more.

About Ludus Tours:
Ludus Tours provides complete travel, tour and hospitality packages to the world’s premiere sporting and cultural events, including the 2011 Oktoberfest, the 2012 Summer Games in London, the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, and more. Founded 2003, Ludus has helped tens of thousands of individuals, families and organizations get the most out of experiencing major events. Ludus is the Official Hospitality and Accommodation Provider for many of the USA National Governing Bodies including Volleyball, Water Polo and Triathlon, among others. In addition to their travel services, Ludus Sports offers corporate branding, marketing and retail opportunities within each of their events. Ludus Tours is based in San Diego, CA, with offices in London, UK. They are not affiliated with the U.S. Olympic Committee or Team USA. For more information, please visit

Press & Media Contact:
Larkin Geyer
Ludus Tours
Account Manager
P.O. Box 50251
Austin, TX 78763